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Sai Institute of Sports Injury

Total Knee Replacement

When the knee is severely damaged by arthritis or injury, it may be difficult to walk or climb stairs.

If medical treatment and using walking supports are no longer helpful, one can consider total knee replacement surgery. Joint replacement is the ideal treatment for pain relief, correction of deformity and to resume normal activities. Causes to consider TKR:

  • Osteoarthritis.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Post traumatic arthritis.

Basic steps involved in knee replacement procedure.

  • Bone preparation: The damaged portions of the cartilage on both tibia and femur are removed along with some bone.
  • Place the metal implants: The removed cartilage and bone is replaced with metal components that recreate the surface of the joint. These metal parts can either be cemented into the bone or "press-fit" into the bone.
  • Replace the patella: The under surface of the patella (kneecap) is cut and resurfaced with a plastic button.
  • Place a spacer: A medical-grade plastic spacer is inserted between the metal components to create a smooth gliding surface

Possible Complications Include

  • Infection
  • Blood clots.
  • Implant problems.
  • Neurovascular injury.
  • Continuous pain.


Most patients begin exercises of the knee the next day after surgery. In some cases, patients begin moving their knee on the actual day of surgery. A physiotherapist will guide you with special exercises to increase your muscle strength and gain full range of movement, which allows you to walk freely and do your daily activities.